Theresa May is
the new British Prime Minister.
Following the result of the Brexit referendum, David
Cameron pledged to resign as Prime Minister once the Conservative
had chosen a new leader.
, who was Home
(minister of the Interior) from 2011 to 2016, is seen as a
person with years of experience at
top level of government. During the
Brexit referendum campaign, May campaigned (though not very
loudly) for Britain to remain in the
She has now pledged to take Britain out of the European
Union, and to start formal negotiations on this before the end of March
May believes that her government has a "Royal prerogative"
take Britain out of the European Union without consulting Parliament.
Royal Prerogatives are the vestiges of the ancient powers of the
Monarch to rule without the assent of Parliament.
However many Members of Parliament contest the Prime Minister's right
to take Britain out of the EU without their assent, and a legal
challenge is being mounted in the British Supreme Court.
political parties from their origins to today
A short history
of political parties in Britain
has the oldest parliament in the world. The English
met for the first time at the Palace of Westminster in the year 1265,
but it took more than four centuries before the concept of "political
parties" gave a new dimension to political life in Britain.
Before the birth of political parties in the seventeenth century, the
English parliament consisted of aristocrats and wealthy men
formed alliances and majorities based on specific factors or loyalties.
It was not until after the English Civil War, and parliamentary
upheavals during the Republican years of the Commonwealth and
Protectorate (1649-1660), that the first English political parties
began to take shape. During the years from 1678 to 1681, and
constitutional crisis known as the Exclusion
Crisis, most members of the English parliament
formed into two "parties", named Whigs
The descendants of these two original parties are the two parties that
formed the coalition government under Prime Minister David Cameron from
2010 to 2015.
Until the early 20th century,
alone or in coalition with other groups, these two political parties in
turn formed successive British governments, based on the results of
Initially, the Whigs
were the party of the liberal and reforming aristocracy. In contrast to
the Tories, the Whig Party attracted people more favorable to
constitutional reforms, and in 1832 led the most significant
modernization of the British Parliament, the Reform Act, which
rebalanced parliamentary constituencies, and greatly expanded the
electoral base to the middle classes. In the 1850's, the Whig Party
became the most important element of a union of Whigs and Radicals who
took the name "Liberal
This centrist party continued until 1988, when it merged with the new
but smaller Social Democratic Party to form today's Liberal Democrats
. The word Tory designated
early supporters of strong royal power; Tories were monarchists and
traditionalists, especially at the time of the Restoration of the
monarchy in 1660. During the eighteenth century, the Whigs dominated
British politics, and the Tory party played a relatively small role in
the political life of the United Kingdom.
changed in the last three decades of the eighteenth century, when the
rise of reformism and radicalism in Europe, which was to lead notably
to the French Revolution (1789), gave a new impetus to defenders of the
status quo and conservatism.
The Tories re-emerged as a major force in British politics in 1770 -
but this time as a modern party in favor of maintaining the best
traditions of Britain, but at the same time strongly supporting the new
opportunities created by the industrial revolution and imperial and
commercial expansion. During the 19th century - as today - the Tory
party, which became the Conservative
in 1834, was torn between its traditionalists and its reformers.
Benjamin Disraeli, the Conservative prime minister from 1874 to 1880,
was one of the great reformers of the 19th century.
After the First World War, a
new party came to power in the British Parliament, the Labour
Party. The first Labour
MPs had been elected in 1900 as representatives of the Independent
Labour Party. The Labour Party formed a minority government in 1924,
but it did not last. Labour first formed a majority government in 1929.
The rise of the Labour Party came however at the expense of
other non-Conservative party, the Liberals, and Labour
the Liberals as the main alternative to the Conservatives.
From 1929 to 2010, power alternated
between the Conservatives and the Labour Party.
Following the general election of 2010, no single party
with an absolute majority of MPs; so for the first time in living
memory, a coalition government was formed, with the Conservatives and
the Liberal Democrats sharing power.
Stability of the political
this historical overview shows, the British political
general has until very recently been characterized by a remarkable
stability. The British
electoral system, a system of "relative majority" (known as the " first
past the post" system) 1, has not
changed for more
than four centuries, and is favorable to large parties and stable
governments. It tends to prevent parties fragmenting into
factions or clans, and encourages consensus positions around strong
prime ministers past and present. Left to Right Gordon Brown and Tony
Blair (Labour), John Major (Conservative), Nick Clegg (Liberal
Democrat, deputy PM) and David Cameron (Conservative, PM in 2014)
In a referendum in
2011, British voters reaffirmed their commitment to this
electoral system, rejecting a new system that would have introduced an
element of proportional representation.
three major parties are all now more than a century old, and the system
makes it very hard for new parties to get a foot on the ladder. The
rise of the Labour Party in the early 20th century was the result of
major changes in society. Since then, no new party has succeeded in
establishing itself in England, and new parties that are
remain marginal in terms of representation, or merge with larger ones.
The situation is different in other parts of the United Kingdom, where
nationalist parties have broken into the political landscape, even to
the point of becoming the principal political party in Scotland.
The Political landscape in Britain today
Parties in turmoil
"Brexit" referendum has plunged the main British political parties into
turmoil, with both main parties Conservative and Labour being
(irreparably?) divided about Britain's relationship with the European
Union. The Conservative party has been split down the middle by
opposition between pro- and anti-Europeans. The Labour Party is riven
by dissention between a militant party membership, and the party's
generally moderate MPs. Labour MPs have overwhelmingly passed
vote of no confidence in leader Jeremy Corbyn, who says he will not
stand down as he was elected overwhelmingly by party members.
Of the three main traditional parties, only the
party has emerged intact from the chaos: the Lib-Dems always have
been, and remain, firmly pro-European.
If a general
election is held in the UK in 2016 or 2017, the result will be totally
unpredictable, based on the current states of the main parties,
possibly opening the floodgates to minority or single-issue parties
such as UKIP.
parties (excluding regionalist parties / nationalsts )
or conservative parties
is the British party of the right, including a broad range of
traditional conservatives and royalists, neo-liberals and social
conservatives. For the last forty years, the party has been deeply
divided over issues of sovereignty and the role of Britain in the
European Union. A majority of party members are in favour of a revision
of the terms of Britain's membership of the European Union, and the
holding of a referendum on withdrawal. But other
Conservatives, including industrial and business leaders, are strongly
pro-European. Recent leaders have been beset by problems trying to
reconcile the strongly opposing views of party members on this issue.
the divisions were sharply amplified during the campaign for the Brexit
referendum; two thirds of the Party's MPs - essentially the
centre-right moderate wing of the party - were in favour of remaining
in the EU; one third, the Conservative sovereignist hard-liners and the
neo-conservative faction, were in favour of leaving. However,
grass-roots Conservative party activists are on the whole further to
the right than their MPs.
Since the resignation of David Cameron, the Party has moved to the
right, as pro-Brexit and sovereignist MPs have taken up key
positions in Mrs. May's cabinet.
The Conservative Party is made up of local Associations which play a
major role in the selection of candidates and the appointment of the
party leader. The importance of this local structure reflects the very
old tradition of territorial representation in British politics, a
tradition dating back to the Middle Ages. However, "Central Office"
often imposes candidates on local associations to enable
up-and-coming stars to enter parliament, as was the case with Margaret
In her short speech to the press, on taking up her
job as Prime Minister, Theresa
positioned herself very clearly as a "one-nation" moderate
Conservative, keen to build a new Britain for ordinary people,
just for the wealthy. It was a speech that could equally well have been
made by David Cameron, or most of the recent leaders of the Labour
UKIP - The UK
sovereignist party that wants Britain to withdraw from the European
Union. The party has little in the way of policies, apart from
Europe-bashing, but is surprisingly popular with voters disgruntled
with the perceived failures of the main parties . In the 2015 election,
UKIP obtained just one member of
Parliament, a sitting MP who had moved over from the conservatives.
UKIP has several members in the European Parliament.
UKIP provided the foot-soldiers of the campaign to take Britain out of
the European Union; but the non-UKIP part of the Leave campaign has
sought to distance itself from UKIP since the referendum, worried at
the damage that UKIP's xenophobic campaigning has done to Britain.
BNP - British
An extreme right-wing party , with nationalistic and xenophobic views.
No members of parliament
Parties of the
The Liberal Democrat party - the Liberal Democrats , or
party of the centre, formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party
and the Social Democratic Party (SPD) , the latter being made up of
dissidents from the Labour party. The Lib Dems are thus a mixture of
social conservatives and social democrats. The party is the
pro-European of the major British parties, and until 2015 shared
power with the Conservative Party in the coalition government.
In the 2015 election, the Lib Dems lost most of their MPs.
However, following the election of left-winger Jeremy Corbyn to the
head of the Labour party in September 2015, many are predicting an
unexpected revival in the fortunes of the Liberal Democrats as
disaffected social democrats abandon Labour.
expectations have been raised further since the Brexit referendum vote.
The Liberal-Democrats are starting to appear as the only
party at the Centre of British politics, as the Conservative party
moves to the right, and the Labour Party moves increasingly to the left.
The Greens - The Green Party
centre-left party, in many ways rather middle-class, committed to the
promotion of environmental issues. One Member of Parliament (since 2010)
The parties of the Left
The Labour Party
Labour party covers virtually the whole spectrum of left wing politics
in Britain, and includes a smaller party known as the Co-operative
party. Until 2010, since the time of Tony Blair, it had been
dominated by the
social-liberal centre-left (initially known as New
the collectivist "Old Labour" views were very much in a minority . From
2010 to 2015, under the leadership of Ed Miliband, it remained
essentially a centre-left party; but in September 2015, with the
election to the leadership of a left-winger Jeremy Corbyn, the Labour
party has moved into a new period in its history. (see below)
The party is supported and funded by the British
trade unions, but it
is not controlled or significantly influenced by them, and this
influence was further reduced in 2015. Very weak following the
recession of the 1970s, the party was largely reformed later by Tony
Blair, who transformed it into a modern social democratic party.
The Labour Party is made up of local parties (Constituency Labour
Parties), most British trade unions and other associations. These
structures send delegates to party conferences, depending on the number
of their members. Party Conferences define the general lines of party
policy, but conference decisions are not binding on the parliamentary
party . Until 2014 Labour party leaders were elected by three
colleges, individual members , Labour MPs, and trade unions,
college representing a third of the final result. The last leader,
Ed Miliband, was elected by the weight of union vote, even though both
Labour MPs and individual members preferred his brother David Miliband.
election, and to reassure not only the country but also a large number
of his constituents , Ed Miliband sought to emphasize his total
independence from the unions. In 2014, he announced plans to reduce the
role of the unions even further in the election of the party leader.
A new electoral process was introduced, whereby the leader is
elected by paid up members of the party and anyone else who signs up
and pays to vote in the electoral process.
Following the party's defeat in the 2015 General Election, Miliband
stepped down as leader of the Labour Party. In September however, Party
members and other electors chose as the new leader of the labour Party
a radical left-winger, Jeremy Corbyn – the most left-wing
the party has ever had. Corbyn's election has sparked a serious rift in
the party, and within hours of his election, eight members of the
cabinet had announced that they would not be part of Corbyn's team.
Others are expected to follow.
For Corbyn's supporters, his election marks a return by the
Labour party to its core socialist values; for his opponents, it has
simply made the Labour Party unelectable for at least ten years.... if
not longer. Opinion polls persistently show that while Labour party
militants may favour a strong left-wing agenda, British voters as a
whole do not.
during the Brexit referendum campaign, Jeremy Corbyn was repeatedly
accused of showing only half-hearted support for his party's official
position, which is in favour of Britain remaining in the European
Union. In the days following the vote, eleven members of his Shadow
cabinet either resigned or were sacked, and a motion has been tabled
calling on Corbyn to step down, on the grounds that he does not show
the leadership qualities that the party needs if it wants to have any
hope of winning another General Election.
However, in September, Corbyn was reelected as
the Labour Party, with an increased majority, thanks to a surge in
The party of a populist left-wing Labour party dissident,
George Galloway, who was its sole MP until 2015.
The Communist Party of Great Britain
Very marginal, the party has only ever had two elected MPs. It was
never a mass party, not even when at its peak in the 1940's.
Main regional and nationalist
does not have any serious regional parties, however, regional or
nationalist parties are now very important in the political landscape
of other countries that make up the United Kingdom.
SNP - Scottish Nationalist party
the most important political party in Scotland, and the party in power
in the Scottish Parliament . A left-of-centre nationalist party, that
organized a referendum on Scottish independence in autumn 2014. In the
referendum, Scots voted to remain part of the United Kingdom.
following the result of the Brexit referendum vote in which Scotland
overwhelmingly voted to remain in the European Union, party leader
Nicola Sturgeon is currently looking at the possibility of holding a
second Scottish independence referendum before the UK actually leaves
the European Union (if that should actually happen, which for the time
being, remains a possibility).
Plaid Cymru - Welsh nationalist party
Welsh party, which did control the Welsh Assembly, but is now on a par
with the Labor Party, which is also very well established in this part
of the United Kingdom.
Democratic Unionist Party 2
DUP, the conservative Protestant majority party in Northern
Ireland, is very favorable to the maintenance of Northern
within the United Kingdom, but not to Britain remaining in the European
Sinn Fein 2
majority party among the Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, in
favour of the withdrawal of Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom,
and the reunification of Ireland.
Party and Labour Party of Northern Ireland, a non-sectarian social
democratic party made up of both Catholics and Protestants.
1. The system of relative majority; The winner of any election is the
person who gets the greatest number of votes, even if this is not an
majority of the votes cast.
2. The Northern Ireland Assembly is
currently in the hands of a coalition between DUP and Sinn Fein , once
bitter enemies of each other.
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