Political parties

Political parties in Britain

 December 2019 In the December 2019 election, the A short guide
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A guide to the party political system in Britain


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ELECTION SPECIAL - Political parties and the main issues of the 2019 General Election

What are the Parties' principal policies ?  And what does each party stand for ? A very quick guide to the five UK parties (excluding regional parties).

On Brexit On immigration On the economy On health
The Conservatives In favour Reduce immigration Boost the economy by reducing taxes for all, including the wealthy. Reduce bureaucracy. Provide an extra £20.5 bn a year for the health service
Labour Call for new referendum Keep the immigration that is vital for parts of the British workforce Reduce taxes for 95% of the population, but increase them for the top 5%. Renationalise parts of the economy, notably the railways. Abolish tuition fees for university students Provide an extra £26 bn a year for the health service
The Lib Dems Against Keep Free movement of people within the EU Boost the economy by stopping Brexit; (almost all economic forecasts show that Brexit will damage the British economy) Provide an extra £6 bn a year paid for by an increase in income tax
The Green party Against Keep Free movement of people within the EU Boost the economy by stopping Brexit; take increasingly radical measures to combat climate change and improve the environment. Renationalise some public services now in private hands. Take back some parts of the NHS currently operated by private contractors, and inject public money as needed.
The Brexit party In favour Reduce immigration to 50,000 a year No major policies announced. But reduce foreign aid by 50% and abolish inheritance tax Unclear

The result of the 2019 General election

Boris Johnson's Conservative Party won a clear victory, with a majority of 80 seats in the House of Commons. It was the fourth successive defeat for the Labour Party, whose leader, Jeremy corbyn, announced that he would be standing down in 2020.
Johnson, who had campaigned on the simple catch-phrase of "Get Brexit Done" confirmed that the UK would leave the European Union on 31st January.
   Although the Conservatives won a comfortable majority in the House of commons, thanks to the UK's "first-past-the-post" voting system, they only secured 43.6% of the national vote, less than the combined score of the Labour and Liberal-Democrat parties (43.7%) and considerably less than the total share of votes that went to all opposition parties (50.8% - excluding Northern Ireland).
  In January, the new Conservative-dominated parliament finally passed a bill to take the UK out of the European Union on 31st January.
   After this the UK enters a "transition period" during which, basically, nothing changes, and the UK will continue effectively as if it were still a member of the EU, while negotiations take place to establish Britain's trading and other relations with the EU after the end of the transition period.
   Johnson continues to repeat that these negotiations will be completed by the end of 2020; most experts, and the EU, believe that they will take considerably longer, and that Brexit will not "get done" by the end of the year.



How the British electoral system works

Britain uses a historic "first-past-the-post" electoral system.  There is just one round of voting, and the candidate with the most votes wins. That's it. Thus, if there are ten candidates standing for a seat, candidates A to J, and candidates B to J each get 9.95 % of the vote, 0.4% of the votes are invalid, and candidate A gets 10% of the vote, candidate A is elected. There is no runoff, no second round.
   Though 10% of the vote is a small minority, it is more than any other candidate, and is thus described as a relative majority , or as a "plurality" in American English.
   While this system works well in an essentially two-party system, it is badly suited to a system in which there are three or more parties all taking at least 20% of the votes. Where there are four or five parties all with a considerable following, as in Scotland or Wales, the "first past the post" system can be considered as quite undemocratic, as it leads to candidates and parties winning seats on the basis of maybe just 25% of the votes, with the "losers" taking 75% between them.
   This is why across the UK in 2019 there are calls for the voting system to be reformed to give more proportional representation.  In the meantime many voters are being encouraged to resort to "tactical voting" - for or against Brexit - and give their vote to the anti-Brexit candidate (or the pro-Brexit candidate) most likely to win, regardless of party.

Topical : The Brexit referendum    
A choice of  pages :
NEW & updated:  Brexit a timeline of events since the referendum
 ►  Brexit:  The arguments and the people

British political parties from their origins to today

A short history of political parties in Britain

England has the oldest parliament in the world.  The English parliament met for the first time at the Palace of Westminster in the year 1265, but it took more than four centuries before the concept of "political parties" gave a new dimension to political life in Britain.
    Before the birth of political parties in the seventeenth century, the English parliament consisted of aristocrats and wealthy men who formed alliances and majorities based on specific factors or loyalties. It was not until after the English Civil War, and parliamentary upheavals during the Republican years of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (1649-1660), that the first English political parties began to take shape. During the years from 1678 to 1681,  and the constitutional crisis known as the Exclusion Crisis, most members of the English parliament  formed into  two "parties", named Whigs and Tories. The descendants of these two original parties are the two parties that formed the coalition government under Prime Minister David Cameron from 2010 to 2015.

     Until the early 20th century, alone or in coalition with other groups, these two political parties in turn formed successive British governments, based on the results of parliamentary elections.
     Initially, the Whigs were the party of the liberal and reforming aristocracy. In contrast to the Tories, the Whig Party attracted people more favorable to constitutional reforms, and in 1832 led the most significant modernization of the British Parliament, the Reform Act, which rebalanced parliamentary constituencies, and greatly expanded the electoral base to the middle classes. In the 1850's, the Whig Party became the most important element of a union of Whigs and Radicals who took the name "Liberal Party". This centrist party continued until 1988, when it merged with the new but smaller Social Democratic Party to form today's Liberal Democrats
.     The word Tory designated early supporters of strong royal power; Tories were monarchists and traditionalists, especially at the time of the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. During the eighteenth century, the Whigs dominated British politics, and the Tory party played a relatively small role in the political life of the United Kingdom.
     This changed in the last three decades of the eighteenth century, when the rise of reformism and radicalism in Europe, which was to lead notably to the French Revolution (1789), gave a new impetus to defenders of the status quo and conservatism. The Tories re-emerged as a major force in British politics in 1770 - but this time as a modern party in favor of maintaining the best traditions of Britain, but at the same time strongly supporting the new opportunities created by the industrial revolution and imperial and commercial expansion. During the 19th century - as today - the Tory party, which became the Conservative Party in 1834, was torn between its traditionalists and its reformers. Benjamin Disraeli, the Conservative prime minister from 1874 to 1880, was one of the great reformers of the 19th century.

     After the First World War, a new party came to power in the British Parliament, the Labour Party. The first Labour MPs had been elected in 1900 as representatives of the Independent Labour Party. The Labour Party formed a minority government in 1924, but it did not last. Labour first formed a majority government in 1929. The rise of the Labour Party  came however at the expense of the other non-Conservative party, the Liberals, and Labour replaced the Liberals as the main alternative to the Conservatives.
     From 1929 to 2010, power alternated between the Conservatives and the Labour Party.
     Following the general election of 2010,  no single party emerged with an absolute majority of MPs; so for the first time in living memory, a coalition government was formed, with the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats sharing power.

Former stability of the political landscape

 British prime ministersBritish prime ministers of recent years. Left to Right Gordon Brown and Tony Blair (Labour), John Major (Conservative), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat, deputy PM) and David Cameron (Conservative, PM in 2014)
As this historical overview shows, the British political landscape in general has until very recently been characterized by a remarkable stability. The British electoral system, a system of "relative majority" (known as the " first past the post" system) 1,  has not changed for more than four centuries, and is favorable to large parties and stable governments. It tends to prevent parties fragmenting into smaller factions or clans, and encourages consensus positions around strong party leaders.
     In a referendum in 2011, British voters reaffirmed their commitment to this historic electoral system, rejecting a new system that would have introduced an element of proportional representation.
    Britain's three major parties are all now more than a century old, and the system makes it very hard for new parties to get a foot on the ladder. The rise of the Labour Party in the early 20th century was the result of major changes in society. Since then, no new party has succeeded in establishing itself in England, and new parties that are created remain marginal in terms of representation, or merge with larger ones. The situation is different in other parts of the United Kingdom, where nationalist parties have broken into the political landscape, even to the point of becoming the principal political party in Scotland.
   However, the result of the European elections held in May 2019 show that an earthquake has hit the formerly stable political landcape.  In the European elections,the traditional "main" parties, the Conservatives and Labour, took just 25% of the vote between them, with the Conservatives taking their lowest share of the vote since the nineteenth century... less than 10%.  Over 66% of the votes were taken by other parties, notably the new Brexit Party (31%) ,  the Liberal Democrats (20%) and the Greens (12%).

The Political landscape in Britain today

2016 - 2019  - Parties in turmoil

In the May 2019 European Union  parliamentary election, the ruling Conservative Party fell to a historic low of under 10% of the vote. The far right, in the shape of Nigel Farage's "Brexit party", took over 31.6%, while the three main anti-Brexit parties, the Lib Dems (20.3%) the Greens (12.1%) and ChangeUK (3.4%) took a combined share of 35.8%.  Labour, the main opposition party, saw its share of the vote fall to 14.1%.

  Then, seven months later, the Conservatives romped back to the top of the list, taking 43% of the vote in the December 2019 General election, and giving Boris Johnson a strong parliamentary mandate to take the UK our of the European Union.

  The remarkable fluctuation of the scores of the Conservative Party from under 10% in an election in May, to over 43% in an election in December of the same year, dramatically illustrate the chaos in which Britain's political parties found themselves in 2019.

   As many commentators have noted, the result of the 2019 election was not so much a victory for the Conservatives, as a defeat for the Labour Party. The far-left policies announced by Jeremy Corbyn, such as a four-day working week,  frightened hundreds of thousands of traditional Labour supporters, and handed victory to the Conservatives in spite of their unpopularity (as evidenced in the European elections in May).

Main British parties (excluding regionalist parties / nationalsts ) 

Right-wing or conservative parties

The Conservative Party

The Boris Johnson era

The Conservative party has been taken over by the hard right. Boris Johnson has filled his Cabinet (government) with men and women who campaigned for Brexit, and has appointed arch-Brexiteer Jacob Rees-Mogg to the position of Leader of the House of Commons. The Leader of the House is the member of the Government who is in charge of organising the business of the House.
  The centrist Conservatives who were prominent in all of Theresa May's cabinets - men such as Philip Hammond, former Chancellor of the Exchequer and Rory Stewart or David Gauke, former Justice Secretary - have either refused to work with Boris Johnson, or have been dropped from the government. 
   Under Johnson, the Conservative Party has become the party of Hard Brexit – forcing traditional moderate Conservatives to question their party loyalty. Many supporters and a fair number of former party members have abandoned the party, some of them becoming independents, others (even including former Conservative deputy Prime Minister Michael Heseltine) joining or supporting the Lib Dems.  Many moderates have now either left the Conservative Party, or did not stand for reelection in the 2019 General Election.

December 2019
 In the December 2019 election, the Conservatives won a majority of 80 seats in the House of Commons, taking 43.6% of the national vote,  taking dozens of traditional Labour seats in the largely pro-Brexit urban areas of the North of England. Johnson now has the Parliamentary majority needed to take the UK out of the European Union, and Brexit  will take place on 31st January 2020.

The Theresa May government

The May government, the government in charge of negotiating Britain's exit from the European Union (Brexit) was a strange mix of right-wing nationalism and centrist "compassionate Conservatism". In her speech to the Tory Party conference in Autumn 2016, Theresa May sounded almost like a leader of the Labour Party in her promises to help the "Jams"  (those who are Just-About-Managing to get by in life) ; yet  on Brexit, her rhetoric has been that of strident nationalism. In a move to appease the hard-liners in her party, and much to the alarm of the Conservative centre, she pledged not only to take the UK out of the EU, but also out of the Single European Market, the free trade area that extends beyond the EU.
  As from June 9th 2017, May had to depend for support on an agreement (not a coalition) with "friends and allies" in the right-wing protestant Democratic Unionist Party of Northern Ireland, to form a government. This was a marriage of convenience which failed to give May the success she was hoping for. She resigned in 2019 after her Brexit agreement, carefully negotiated with the EU, was rejected three times in the House of Commons.
 
This is the British party of the right, traditionally including a broad range of traditional conservatives and royalists, neo-liberals and social conservatives. For the last forty years, the party has been deeply divided over issues of sovereignty and the role of Britain in the European Union. A majority of party members are in favour of a revision of the terms of Britain's membership of the European Union, and the holding of a referendum on withdrawal. But other Conservatives, including industrial and business leaders, are strongly pro-European. Recent leaders have been beset by problems trying to reconcile the strongly opposing views of party members on this issue.
   In 2016, the divisions were sharply amplified during the campaign for the Brexit referendum; two thirds of the Party's MPs - essentially the centre-right moderate wing of the party - were in favour of remaining in the EU; one third, the Conservative sovereignist hard-liners and the neo-conservative faction, were in favour of leaving.  However, grass-roots Conservative party activists are on the whole further to the right than their MPs.
  Since the resignation of David Cameron, the Party has moved to the right, as pro-Brexit and sovereignist  MPs have taken up key positions in Mrs. May's cabinet.  Since the election of Boris Johnson as leader, the Conservative Party has become essentially a UK nationalist party.
   
   The Conservative Party is made up of local Associations which play a major role in the selection of candidates and the appointment of the party leader. The importance of this local structure reflects the very old tradition of territorial representation in British politics, a tradition dating back to the Middle Ages. However, "Central Office" often imposes candidates on local associations to enable up-and-coming stars to enter parliament, as was the case with Margaret Thatcher.
   In her short speech to the press, on taking up her job as Prime Minister, Theresa May positioned herself very clearly as a "one-nation" moderate Conservative, keen to build a new Britain for ordinary people, not just for the wealthy. It was a speech that could equally well have been made by David Cameron, or most of the recent leaders of the Labour Party.

New - 2019. The Brexit Party
Nigel Farage, who founded UKIP, has now quit UKIP and founded a new anti-EU party called simply the "Brexit party". With no policies other than to call for a 'hard" Brexit, the BP  nevertheless immediately became the UKs most popular political party in terms of voting intentions for the  European Elections.
  The BP has attracted most of the voters who previously supported UKIP, plus those Conservative voters who believe in Brexit. As a result, the Brexit Party did better in the EU elections than any other party, and secured more of the UK's seats in the European Parliament than any other party. Ironic for a party that does not believe in the European Union.
   In the 2019 General election, the Brexit party supported the Conservative candidates in seats already held by the Conservatives.
   The party plans to change its name to the Reform Party in 2020. They did not win any seats.

UKIP - The UK Independence Party
A sovereignist party that wants Britain to withdraw from the European Union. The party has little in the way of policies, apart from Europe-bashing, but is surprisingly popular with voters disgruntled with the perceived failures of the main parties . In the 2015 election, UKIP obtained just one member of Parliament, a sitting MP who had moved over from the conservatives. UKIP has several members in the European Parliament.
   In 2016, UKIP provided the foot-soldiers of the campaign to take Britain out of the European Union; but the non-UKIP part of the Leave campaign has sought to distance itself from UKIP since the referendum, worried at the damage that UKIP's xenophobic campaigning has done to Britain.
    Since Farage left the party that he created, and created another new party, the Brexit Party, UKIP has lost most of its supporters. It won no seats in the 2019 European elections.

BNP - British National Party
An extreme right-wing party , with nationalistic and xenophobic views. No members of parliament

Parties of the centre

The Liberal Democrat party - the Liberal Democrats , or Lib Dems

A party of the centre, formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SPD) , the latter being made up of dissidents from the Labour party. The Lib Dems are thus a mixture of social conservatives and social democrats. The party is the most pro-European of the major British parties, and until 2015 shared power with the Conservative Party in the coalition government.
   Many of those who voted Lib-Dem in 2010 were furious when the party chose to go into colaition with the Conservatives, and in the 2015 election, the Lib Dems lost most of their MPs. However, following the election of left-winger Jeremy Corbyn to the head of the Labour party in September 2015, and the subequent internal divisions in the Labour party, support for the Lib-Dems has begun to rise again
   In 2016, expectations have been raised further since the Brexit referendum vote.  The Liberal-Democrats are starting to appear as the only credible party at the Centre of British politics, as the Conservative party moves to the right, and the Labour Party moves increasingly to the left. In December 2016, an unknown Lib-Dem candidate achieved a dramatic success by beating the Conservatives, with a swing of 21% away from the Conservatives, in a parliamentary by-election fought almost entirely on the issue of Brexit.
   In the June 2017 election, the Lib-Dems increased their number of MPs from 8 to 11, taking seats from the Conservatives and the Scottish Nationalists. However they did not emerge as the new party of opposition, and as well as gaining seats, they lost some.
   2018
. In spite of being the only one of the three major parties that is committed to opposing Brexit, and in spite of gaining 60,000 new members in 2018 the Lib-Dems continue to show very poorly in opinion polls compared to Conservatives or Labour.
   2019. As the only party that has been clearly and consistently opposed to Brexit, the Liberal Democrats are staging a remarkable comeback. In the European Parliamentary Elections, they came second, beating both the Conservatives and Labour.  They are expected to increase their representation in Parliament in August by retaking the Brecon and Randnorshire seat from the Conservatives in a by-election. The party has also been buoyed by the election of its youngest and first female leader, Jo Swinson, aged 39.
   It has also increased its parliamentary presence to 19, as sitting MPs from both the Conservatives and Labour have defected to the Lib Dems
   December 2019 In the December 2019 election, the LibDems campaigned firmly against Brexit, but failed dramatically to position themselves as a credible opposition party, and instead of taking a large number of seats from the Conservatives in "remain"  (anti-Brexit) areas, came out with one MP less than before the election – in spite of  increasing their national share of the vote by 2%.

The Greens - The Green Party

A centre-left party, in many ways rather middle-class, committed to the promotion of environmental issues. One Member of Parliament (since 2010)

The parties of the Left

The Labour Party 

The Labour party covers virtually the whole spectrum of left wing politics in Britain, and includes a smaller party known as the Co-operative party. Until 2010, since the time of Tony Blair, it had been dominated by the social-liberal centre-left (initially known as New Labour):   the collectivist "Old Labour" views were very much in a minority . From 2010 to 2015, under the leadership of Ed Miliband, it remained essentially a centre-left party; but in September 2015, with the election to the leadership of a left-winger Jeremy Corbyn, the Labour party has moved into a new period in its history. (see below)
   The party is supported and funded by the British trade unions, but it is not controlled or significantly influenced by them, and this influence was further reduced in 2015. Very weak following the recession of the 1970s, the party was largely reformed later by Tony Blair, who transformed it into a modern social democratic party.
     The Labour Party is made up of local parties (Constituency Labour Parties), most British trade unions and other associations. These structures send delegates to party conferences, depending on the number of their members. Party Conferences define the general lines of party policy, but conference decisions are not binding on the parliamentary party . Until 2014 Labour party leaders were  elected by three electoral colleges, individual members , Labour MPs, and trade unions,  each college representing a third of the final result. The last leader, Ed Miliband, was elected by the weight of union vote, even though both Labour MPs and individual members preferred his brother David Miliband. After his election, and to reassure not only the country but also a large number of his constituents , Ed Miliband sought to emphasize his total independence from the unions. In 2014, he announced plans to reduce the role of the unions even further in the election of the party leader.  A new electoral process was introduced, whereby the leader is elected by paid up members of the party and anyone else who signs up and pays to vote in the electoral process.
  Following the party's defeat in the 2015 General Election, Miliband stepped down as leader of the Labour Party. In September however, Party members and other electors chose as the new leader of the labour Party a radical left-winger, Jeremy Corbyn – the most left-wing leader the party has ever had. Corbyn's election has sparked a serious rift in the party, and within hours of his election, eight members of the shadow cabinet had announced that they would not be part of Corbyn's team. Others are expected to follow.
   For Corbyn's supporters, his election marks a return by the Labour party to its core socialist values; for his opponents, it has simply made the Labour Party unelectable for at least ten years.... if not longer. Opinion polls persistently show that while Labour party militants may favour a strong left-wing agenda, British voters as a whole do not.
   In 2016, during the Brexit referendum campaign, Jeremy Corbyn was repeatedly accused of showing only half-hearted support for his party's official position, which is in favour of Britain remaining in the European Union. In the days following the vote, eleven members of his Shadow cabinet either resigned or were sacked, and a motion has been tabled calling on Corbyn to step down, on the grounds that he does not show the leadership qualities that the party needs if it wants to have any hope of winning another General Election.
   However, in September, Corbyn was reelected as leader of the Labour Party, with an increased majority, thanks to a surge in membership
   In April 2017, polls showed the Labour party to be at a historic low level of around 25% – with many traditional Labour voters moving towards the Conservatives on account their support for Brexit and their rhetoric on immigration. 
  When Theresa May called the surprise general election, it was expected that Labour would lose a lot of seats as more and more traditional voters in working-class areas moved over to the Conservatives.  However thanks to poor campaigning by the Conservatives and very good campaigning by Jeremy Corbyn, Labour instead gained 29 seats and the Conservatives lost 12, and lost their absolute majority in Parliament.
   In January 2019, in spite of the Conservative government's huge unpopularity, Labour has not surged ahead in the opinion polls, as normally happens when a government is very unpopular.  Polls suggest that this is essentially due to Jeremy Corbyn who has refused to take any clear personal position on Brexit. Corbyn continues  to say that he is in favour of a "better" Brexit, while opinion polls show that a big majority of Labour voters, specially the young, are against Brexit.
  In the December 2019 general election, Labour suffered a humiliating defeat, losing 60 seats. The defeat was largely attributed to the unpopularity of Jeremy Corbyn as a leader, to the party's inability to provide a clear position on Brexit, and to voter apprehension about the far-left policies put forward by the leadership.
   Corbyn has announced his resignation, but remains in place until a new leader is elected, probably in April 2020.


Respect

The party of a populist left-wing Labour party dissident, George Galloway, who was its sole MP until 2015.

The Communist Party of Great Britain

Very marginal, the party has only ever had two elected MPs. It was never a mass party, not even when at its peak in the 1940's.

Main regional and nationalist parties

England does not have any serious regional parties, however, regional or nationalist parties are now very important in the political landscape of other countries that make up the United Kingdom.

SNP - Scottish Nationalist Party

Currently the most important political party in Scotland, and the party in power in the Scottish Parliament . A left-of-centre nationalist party, that organized a referendum on Scottish independence in autumn 2014. In the referendum, Scots voted to remain part of the United Kingdom.
  In 2016, following the result of the Brexit referendum vote in which Scotland overwhelmingly voted to remain in the European Union, party leader Nicola Sturgeon is currently looking at the possibility of holding a second Scottish independence referendum before the UK actually leaves the European Union.
  In the 2017 General Election, the SNP lost 19 of its 50 seats in the UK parliament, as many Scots turned away from the issue of Scottish nationalism towards parties in favour of remaining in the UK.  However the SNP still holds an absolute majority of Scottish seats in the UK parliament.
  In the 2019 General Election, the SNP came back in force, taking 48 out of 59 Scottish seats, on a ticket supporting Scotland's desire to seek independence from the UK, and remain in the European Union.

Plaid Cymru - Welsh nationalist party

Major Welsh party, which did control the Welsh Assembly, but is now on a par with the Labour Party, which is also very well established in this part of the United Kingdom. In 2017 Plaid Cymru (pronounced Plied Coomry) has three MPs in the UK parliament.

Democratic Unionist Party 2

The DUP, the conservative Protestant majority party in Northern Ireland (Ulster),  is very favorable to the maintenance of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom, but not to Britain remaining in the European Union. They are in favour of Brexit, and reject the idea that Northern Ireland could have special status in the UK after Brexit; however they want Britain - or at least Northern Ireland - to retain full access to the European market (in the framework of a "Comprehensive free trade and customs agreement with the European Union") , positions that may be hard to reconcile.
  The DUP was first formed in 1971 as a hard-line Protestant break-away party, dissatisfied with the direction taken by the official Ulster Unionist party, which was closely allied with the Conservatives.
   In June 2017, the DUP  agreed to support the Conservatives in the Westminster Parliament, allowing Theresa May to form a new government in spite of losing her absolute majority in the House of Commons.  The DUP has 10 MPs. Without their support, Theresa May would have a minority government.
  In the 2019 General Election, the DUP lost seats, but remain the largest party in Northern Ireland.

Sinn Fein 2

The majority party among the Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, in favour of the withdrawal of Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom, and the reunification of Ireland.

SDLP

Social Democratic Party and Labour Party of Northern Ireland, a non-sectarian social democratic party made up of both Catholics and Protestants.

Notes:
1. The system of relative majority; The winner of any election is the person who gets the greatest number of votes, even if this is not an absolute majority of the votes cast.
2. The Northern Ireland Assembly is currently in the hands of a coalition between DUP and Sinn Fein , once bitter enemies of each other. However the Northern Ireland Assembly was suspended in 2016 following the failure of the DUP and Sinn Fein to continue working together.

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Picture top of page: Whigs and Tories are strongly opposed on reforming the British parliament in 1832. Satirical cartoon by Robert Cruickshank, 

Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson... controversial new leader of the conservative Party, and British Prime Minister


House of commons
Debate in the House of commons - showing Ed Miliband, former leader of the Labour party (the Opposition)




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